Author :  

Year-Number: 2021-26
Yayımlanma Tarihi: 2021-03-23 09:55:44.0
Language : İngilizce
Konu : Finans
Number of pages: 9-24
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, bilgi ve iletişim teknolojisi faktörlerinin ekonomi ve toplumu nasıl etkilediğini incelemiştir. Çalışma çevresel, hazır olma ve kullanım faktörlerinin sosyo-ekonomiyi nasıl etkilediğini analiz etmiştir. Çalışmada 2014-2016 dönemlerinde Global Bilgi Teknolojileri Raporlarında yayınlanan 60 ülkeden toplanan panel verileri kullanılmıştır. Verilerin iki sürekli bağımlı (sosyo and ekonomi) değişkene sahip olması nedeniyle analizde çok değişkenli varyans analizi (manova) yöntemi uygulanmıştır. Çalışma bulguları, manova modelinin dört farklı istatistiksel testin tamamında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı olduğunu bulunmuştur. Çalışma ayrıca, tüm bağımsız (çevresel, hazır olma ve kullanım) değişkenlerin her iki denklemde de istatistiksel olarak anlamlı olduğunu ya % 1, % 5 veya % 10 düzeyinde bulmuştur.



The study aims to analyze how ICT (Information and Communication Technology) factors affect on the economy and society. The study had analyzed how environmental, readiness and usage factors affect socio-economy.  A panel data collected from 60 countries published in the Global Information Technology Reports from 2014 to 2016 periods are used in the study. Multivariate analysis of variance (Manova) method was applied in the analysis as the data has two continuous dependents (social & economy) variables. Study findings showed that the Manova model is significant statistically in all four different statistical tests. The study also found that all independent (environmental, readiness, and usage) variables are significant statistically at either 1%, 5%, or 10% level in both equations.


  • Here are some previous researches conducted by different people in different areas which relate to the topic of “how İnformation and Communication Technology (ICT) impacts on socio-economy”. Rajiv, Kartik, and Paul (2013) found that by making ICT available to the citizens, governments are able to increase the level of well-being in that country which reduces the level of stress and suicide rates in the country. According to the results from research conducted by the Commission on Science and Technology for Development (2010) found that ICT impacts the economy, society, and environment positively as a whole. On the other hand, ICT can also cause negative to society and on the environment.

  • Sabu and Shaijumon (2014) research the role of ICT in the fishing sector and they found that with the help of GPS, Sonra, Fish remote sensing, Wireless set, Computer and Mobile phones can make a significant impact on the fishers productivity, cost efficiency, safety and security of the fishers. All the fishermen had benefited by the use and training of ICT was able to increase productivity and income. Another study conducted by Rami, Mansoor, and Smutka (2016) in which they have examined how ICT, Population Growth, Gross Capital Formation, Openness, and Inflation factors affect economic growth. The data used in the research was collected from 18 selected Arab countries between 1995 to 2013 periods.

  • in the community (Kundishora, Phil and Fzie, 2017).

  • Research conducted by the JRC European Commission (2007) in Andalucia, Spain and it is aim was to contribute to the IPTS (İnstitute for Prospective Technological Studies) mission to provide customer-driven support to EU policy-making process by providing research-based analysis of questions related to ICT diffusion, knowledge, and innovation in EU regions. The research found that “ICT can be seen as a lever for long-term productivity growth”. Their results also showed that the regional dimension of ICT contribution to productivity growth is worth considering as substantial differences may arise which will influence the long-term convergence of those EU regions lagging behind.

  • Soon (2011) had conducted research about, “The Role and Impact of ICT on Economy Growth”. This research had investigated and discussed the use of ICT and its contributions to economic growth. Empirical results were produced using prediction analysis, therefor the research had concluded says that ICT impacts the economy positively. The research also gives advises to the countries that want to enhance their economic growth must adopt policies that facilitate ICT investments. Research conducted by Banco Bilbao Vizcaya ArgentariaBBVA (2021) about the importance of ICT in developing and emerging countries from a demand-side perspective found that a cell phone and internet access are gaining importance and value among the basic needs of the individuals. In comparison to the older people, youngsters consider ICT related needs are more basic for them.

  • One of the areas that ICT had impacted most is the education sector. It participated and facilitated the progress of education, industrialization, socio-economic development, and modernizations of the country (Ashok and Tony, 2012). Today’s students have more chance to access and reach knowledge easily and quickly than their predecessors 30 years ago. ICT importance was also realized in this Covid 19 pandemic period where people’s gathering was prohibited due to the infectious spread of the pandemic. All most all the schools and universities in most countries are digitilized and students continue their studies through the internet.

  • A panel data taken from 60 countries in the Global Information Technology Reports from 2014 to 2016 periods were used in the study. The table below shows a list of the countries from which the data has been collected.

  • Dependent variables Environmental Factor (envirofactor) Economic Impact (ecoimpact) Readiness Factor (readifactor) Social Impact (socioimpact) Usage Factor (usagefactor) Figure 1. Conceptuel Frame Work of the Manova Regression Analysis Model Models Ecoimpact = αi + βi (envirofactor) + βi (readifactor) + βi (usagefactor) + e1 (1) Socioimpact = αi + βi (envirofactor) + βi (readifactor) + βi (usagefactor) + e2 (2) The conceptual framework presented in figure 1 consists of three independent variables and two dependent variables. The three independent variables are also called drivers because they establish and determine the conditions of the dependent variables (INSEAD, 2014). These three independent variables are divided into 8 pillars or components as you can see below: Environmental factor: This factor measures how a country's policy and regulations are in favor of ICT implementation, the emergence of entrepreneurship, and support of innovation. When a country's policies and the judiciary are ready to support business competition, innovation, entrepreneurship and protects property rights & investments, especially private investments then such environment is called ICT friendly environment. Under these conditions or constraints, ICT can better contribute to the well-being of the country's economy and society. Hypothesis ≠ 1 H0: The environmental factor does not affect the dependent variables H1: The environmental factor does affect the dependent variables

  • Impact factor: This factor measures ICT’s broad effect on the economy and society. “ICT affects the economy positively, it increases in size and productivity of the ICT sector and an associated growth in the industries that provide inputs to ICT production” (UNCTAD, 2010). ICT is one of the very important factors which contributes to economic growth. ICT's investment & infrastructures can boost the overall capital of the country, therefore, as the investment of the country increases so too the economy also grows bigger. With the help of ICT, Companies are able to produce more at the same time reducing the

  • Adopting ICT into their businesses, they are able to perform low-cost transactions which in turn increases their profits. There is no doubt that ICT can affect economic growth positively. On the other hand, the social impact factor measures, how ICT contributes to the well-being of society. Making ICT available to the citizens, governments are able to increase the level of well-being of their society which lowers the level of stress and suicide rate in the country (Rajiv, Kartik, and Paul, 2013). As we know ICT impacts the environment, education system, energy consumption efficiency, health progress, knowledge sharing, and society's communication ways. We will also test the homogeneity and equality of the covariance between groups, so we will run Box's M test to verify whether the null hypothesis or the alternative hypothesis is true.

  • Coefficients Std. Error t P>ItI [95% Conf. Interval] ecoimpact envirofactor 0.1914628 0.067654 2.83 0.005 0.0579461 0.3249796 readifactor 0.0816312 0.048353 1.69 0.093 -0.0137951 0.1770576 usagefactor 0.692471 0.067592 10.24 0.000 0.5590758 0.8258662 Constant -0.3437054 0.164004 -2.10 0.038 -0.667372 -0.0200389 socioimpact envirofactor 0.3103897 0.080433 3.86 0.000 0.1516525 0.4691272 readifactor 0.1674203 0.057487 2.91 0.004 0.0539685 0.2808721 usagefactor 0.5321602 0.080359 6.62 0.000 0.3735674 0.6907529 Constant -0.1328918 0.194983 -0.68 0.496 -0.5176969 0.2519133

  • The last factor we analyze in the study is the readiness factor. In the economic im- pact equation model, it has a coefficient of 0.0816 and in the social impact equation model, it has a coefficient of 0.1674 and both of the coefficients are positive and statistically significant at 10% and 1% significance levels respectively. The readiness factor which consists of the infrastructure & digital content, affordability, and skills should be given a high priority to make ICT ready in the country. The government should give special considerations to ICT infrastructure & digital content investment, the usage cost should be low to be affordable to use this technology and make sure the population majority have the skill and literacy of the usage of ICT and internet. REFERENCES Aladdın, D. and Valdimir, C. (2016). The Development Dimension of E-Commerce in Asia: Oppor

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