ISSN:2149-9225

EDUCATION AND CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE FIRST YEARS OF THE REPUBLIC (BETWEEN 1923 AND 1938)


The achievements in the field of education and culture are the vital means for the continuity of any states and the upbringing of generations to sustain these states. Therefore, each state has its own educational and cultural policies. Cultural values when supported by education serve as cement that hold the individuals who form the nation and provide a sense of unity and solidarity. The Republic of Turkey, founded on the heritage of the Ottoman Empire, has created new educational and cultural institutions and has developed new policies in order to solve the problems that caused the breakdown of the Ottoman state, educate next generation and maintain the republic. It is accepted that the independence war took place in three stages. The first stage was to expel the enemy from the country. This goal was achieved through armed struggle. The second stage was full independence of the country. This objective was achieved by the abolition of capitulations in all areas through Treaty of Lausanne. The third stage was to become a nation state, modern and developed country. It has been necessary to make progress in the field of education and culture in order to be successful in this last stage. During this period, the Caliphate was abolished and the law on unification of education was introduced. In addition to that very difficult revolutions were made in different areas of social life including the alphabet, clothing, calendar, numbers and measurement. Some law introduced in the field of art and economy and also in order to realise equality of women and men. Atatürk and the statesmen of the period organized nationwide trips to teach and help the people adopt the new reforms. Some crucial institutions were also established in this period including National Schools, Community Centres, the Turkish Language Society and the Turkish Historical Society.


Keywords


National Schools, Community Centres, Turkish Historical Society, Turkish Language Society.

Yazar : Cemal AVCI -
Sayfa Sayısı: 1-10
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29228/kesit.25862
Tam Metin:
Kesit Akademi
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